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网红“最魔幻宿舍”将整改 私设地毯LED灯存消防隐患

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 国务院常务会议:积极财政政策要更加积极 稳健的货币政策要松紧适度 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

深圳LED产业大户“扎堆”宝安 上半年产值占全市41%达410亿

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

6. Miranda Kerr
同样跻身2013年全球最贵城市前十名的还有新加坡、苏黎士、巴黎、委内瑞拉首都加拉加斯和日内瓦。
vt. 补给,供
[bent]
“让人们感到不幸福的原因有很多——从贫穷,失业,家庭破碎到身体伤害” 报告声称,“但在一些特定的社会中,慢性的精神性疾病却是幸福的‘头号杀手’。如果我们想要一个更加幸福的世界,我们需要花更多努力来关心人们的心理健康。”
国务院总理李克强在上周五由人力资源和社会保障部组织的一次会议上表示,要优先促进就业。
在回顾过去一年的影片时,观众们经常想起那些有力的表演,或者会思考一部电影怎样叙事,激发了哪些情绪,做了哪些尝试。

联合国表示,菲律宾总统发起的禁毒战争存在人权问题。周日杜特尔特因此向联合国发起抨击,并表示菲律宾可能离开联合国,转而与中国和非洲国家组成一个新机构。
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罗杰斯夫人还表示,正如条款中所述,她并没有同意她的儿子玩这个游戏。此外,由于这个游戏是免费的,所以该工作室不能够断言因为作弊软件而造成了利润损失。
The letter read: “The BFC shouldn't be endorsing a material whose production is deemed so cruel that it is outlawed in the UK.
施密特在接受采访时问道,“为什么我们接连看到如此多的创纪录温暖年度?这是因为地球正在变暖。根本的问题是,这是一种长期趋势,这种趋势不会消失。”

Footnotes

  • 地方政府成中国摩天大楼推手 在建78座占全球62%
  • Christopher Nolan's World War II feature is probably just about the front runner for best film.

adj. 确实的,保障的,有自信的 动词assure的过
但是他们摆烂的原因还是各不相同的。比如热火队,他们试图通过输球来锻炼队中的年轻人并且确立一个核心;比如魔术队,他们试图摆脱停滞不前的过程。
The civil service exam consists of writing tests and interviews. The interviews are expected to be held in February or March, after the writing test results come out in January.
Will impeachment proceedings begin against Donald Trump
Wishing you happiness during the holidays and throughout the New Year.
2005年,戴维森发现自己总是得跟在一岁大的儿子杰克后面,收拾他随处乱扔的儿童吸管杯。于是,她从塔吉特(Target)上买了一台缝纫机,为儿童吸管杯设计出一个类似皮带的奇妙装置——SippiGrip。但她并没有很快实现自己的创业梦想——她加入了微软人力资源团队,与X-Box部门合作。2007年,她在全国性贸易展上推出了SippiGrip。幸运的是,塔吉特邀请她参加2008年父母发明产品计划。目前,戴维森的产品已经在沃尔玛(Walmart)、婴儿反斗城(Babies "R" Us)和亚马逊等零售商开卖。

衣柜促销大战 “三大派系”争夺金九市场

References

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