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11月广州楼市租赁市场量跌价升

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 武汉将逐步扩大刚需优先选房比例化解“一房难求” (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

元旦楼市观望为主:看房与真心卖房的人都少

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

But economists generally expect the momentum of the recent past to resume and continue once storm distortions abate. The 45 economists who responded to The Wall Street Journal's latest monthly forecasting survey saw the jobless rate falling to 7.8% by next June and 7.5% by the end of 2013. Some say job growth could accelerate from its slow pace. 'I think businesses are going to have to hire,' said Bob Baur, an economist with Principal Global Investors.[qh]
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Two-thirds of this year’s deals are trading above their issue price. On average, 2017’s class of US IPOs have risen in value by about double the S&P 500, at 20 per cent, according to Renaissance Capital, which runs IPO-focused exchange traded funds.
'A little bit in shock,' said director Steve McQueen, before shrugging 'Roll, Jordan, roll'-the lyrics to the old gospel song sung in the slavery epic.
经济学人智库生活成本指数编辑乔恩?科派斯塔克表示,最显著的变化之一是澳大利亚生活成本的上升,它的两个城市悉尼和墨尔本分别名列第三和第五。夹在中间排名第四的是挪威的奥斯陆。
infection
*Awards presented during the Creative Arts Emmy ceremony Sept. 10-11.

今年,该学校首次跻身前20强。
In the true-crime drama “Foxcatcher,” the actor Steve Carell, best known for comedy, loses himself behind a prosthetic facade in portraying the multimillionaire John E. du Pont. The standout in the makeup package is the beaklike nose he sports.
"We hold ourselves to a very high standard," Curry said. "We didn't put any pressure on them defensively in the third quarter. We were sloppy on a couple of possessions offensively and gave them life. Those are things we need to improve on. Everyone likes to learn those lessons in wins."
去年12月,包括中国商务部、中国央行在内的四个政府部门表示,将收紧对房地产、酒店、影城、娱乐业、体育俱乐部等领域的“非理性”对外投资项目的审查。
如果你很卖命的工作并且给公司创造了价值,你本应该得到酬谢。如果你的老板在两年之内没有给你涨薪水,去申请吧。如果老板不同意,还考虑什么,走吧。

Footnotes

  • 一二线城市新建住宅涨幅回落 发改委:坚决遏制房价上涨
  • New Year's greetings and best wishes!

颁奖典礼一开始,两位主持人妙语连珠,引来场下观众阵阵喝彩。马特?戴蒙、梅丽尔?斯特里普(Meryl Streep)和乔治克?鲁尼都自然而然地成为了调侃的对象。蒂娜?费对桑德拉?布洛克(Sandra Bullock)和克鲁尼参演《地心引力》的点评引发场下一阵爆笑。
这确实是的。不过费城队近年来如此努力地垫底的一个被忽略的好处是:他们是如此地烂,以至于这会让其他竞相垫底的球队产生挫败感,因为他们很难做到和76人一样烂。在76人面前,小牛队至少只能算是中等水平的烂。
《无为大师》
v. 形成(颗粒状),
Mr Baweja agrees with this conclusion, noting that both South Korea and India, another net commodity importer, are exporters of refined oil products, the dollar value of which should rise this year.
We will advance reforms in the financial sector.

湖北:部分项目整改不彻底 部分地方打击违规不力

References

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